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ASALIN HAUSAWA

GABATARWA

Idan aka ce asalin abu ana nufin Tarihinsa, babu shakka tarihin Hausawa abu ne wanda ake ta faman shan xauki-ba-daxi dangane da qoqarin samar masa da matsaya guda xaya, sai dai kowaxanne masu bincike da marubuta kan yi qoqarin zuwa da tasu gudunmawar ta hanyar bin wata ko wasu daga cikin nau’ikan hanyoyin da ake bi dan samar da ingataccen kuma karvavven tarihin al’umar da ake da buqatar binciko tarihinta waxan da suke su waxannan hanyoyi sun haxa da ilimin sanin ma’anar zane-zane da sassaqe-sassaqe da nazarin tabbatattun abubuwa da nazarin harsuna da ilimin sanin hanyoyin binciken tsofafin gine-gine gami da kimiyar sanin halin rayuwar xan Adam da kuma nau’in zantukan baka na waxannan al’umma.

 

QASAR HAUSA

A yammacin Afrika, yankin kudancin Sahara kuma arewa da kurmi inda larabawa ke kira Biladul Sudan, wato qasar baqar fata. Yanki ne da ya qunshi qasashe da dauloli da dama a cikinsu har da qasar Hausa. Wadda ta kafu a yammacin Sudan xin, tsakanin tafkin Cadi daga gabas, da guiwar kogin kwara daga yamma da hamadar sahara daga arewa, da kuma dazuzzukan gavar Tekun Atilantika daga kudu, dangane da qasashe da qabilu da qasar Hausa ta yi iyaka da su kuwa, a gabas tayi iyaka da Kanen Borno, a shiyyar kudu, kuma ta yi iyaka da kwararrafa (Qasar Tibi, da Nufe, da Gwari, da sauran tsirarun qabilu). A yamma kuma ta yi iyaka da tsohuwar Daular Sanghai, daga shiyyar arewa kuma qasar Hausa tayi gava da garuruwan Buzaye (Agadas) na cikin qasar Nijar.

(T/Wazirchi, 2009: 11 – 12), a yanzu idan muka duba taswira za mu ga Qasar Hausa tana Arewacin Nijeriya ne da kuma wani sashi na Jamhuriyar Nijar (T/Wazirchi, 2009: 12).

 

A cikin qabilu mazauna yankin Savannah, wato qasa mai qarancin itatuwa, ko mai itatuwa jefi-jefi, Hausawa sune suka fi mamayar wurin zama mai faxin gaske. Wannan wuri shi ne aka fi sani da qasar Hausa. (Gusau, 2008: 2).

 

AL’UMMAR HAUSAWA

Hausawa kuwa mutane ne waxan da suke yin qaura daga garinsu na asali zuwa wani gari na kusa da su ko na nesa, musamman ma a lokacin kaka, bayan an gama ayyukan gona.

 

Bisa al’adar Qasar Hausa, kamar yadda aka faxa a baya, tana da yanayin qasa na savannah ne, wato qasa mai ratsin bishiyoyi jefi – jefi wadda kuma ruwan sama ba ya jimawa yana sauka a cikinta. A kan sami kimanin watanni shida da babu ruwan sama. To wannan yanayi ne yaba Hausawa damar dinga fita daga wurarensu zuwa wasu wuraren don yin wasu sana’o’i da ayyuka na musamman, irin wannan fita ce Hausawa suke ambata da cirani. Ana yin wannan fita ne dan a cinye tsayi na rani, sai ka ga ba za a dawo gida ba sai alamun damina sun fara bayyana (Gusau, 2008: 5 – 6).

 

Akwai kuma wani nau’i na tafiya da Hausawa suke yi wanda kai tsaye ya shafi fatauci inda suke xaukar kaya da jakuna daga wani wuri zuwa kasuwanni daban – daban. Masu wannan fatauci sune ake kira fatake (Falke: tilo). Shugaban fatake kuwa shine Madugu (Madugai: jam’i). haka kuma a irin wannan tafiya akwai ‘yankoli. (Gusau, 2008:6).

 

A taqaice, za a iya cewa akwai Hausawa mazauna qasar Hausa daban – daban waxanda suka haxa da manoma da mafarauta da mayaqa da madugai da fatake da masunta da masaqa da maqera da majema da maharba da maxinka da malamai da masarauta da makaxa da mabusa da dillalai da kuma ‘ya’ya da bayi da sauransu. (Gusau, 2008:6).

 

MA’ANAR KALMAR HAUSA

Akwai maganganu da yawa dangane da asalin Kalmar nan ta hausa. Magana ta farko ta ce wai mutanen Songhai suke kiran mutanen wannan wuri (Qasar Hausa) da Hausa. Haka kuwa ta faru ne saboda a harshen Songhai Kalmar Hausa tana nufin gabas. Kasancewar Qasar Hausa gabas da su ake zaton sune suka riqa kiransu da Hausa, wato mutanen gabas. (Magaji, A. sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano, 1986: 2).

 

Bayan wannan sai maganar da ke cewa asalin kalmar daga mutane masu hawan sa ne. wannan kuwa ya faru, kasancewar Hausawa mutane ne masu kiwon shanu (kamar yadda labarin kafuwar Daura ya nuna). To wai shikenan daga qarshe sai ake kiran mutanen da hau+sa Hausa. (Magaji, A. sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano, 1986:2).

 

A nasa tsinkayen Mr. C.R. Niven (1971) cewa ya yi an samo asalin Kalmar Hausa ne daga Buzaye, domin kuwa haka suke kiran mutanen da ke zaune a arewacin kogin kwara, wato Hausa. (Adamu, M.T. 1997: 19).

 

Amma kuma mashahurin masanin tarihin qasar Hausar nan Mal. AMINU KANO, cewa ya yi an samo Kalmar Hausa ne daga Kalmar Habasha, wai don a cewarsa asalin Hausawa mutanen Habasha ne, kuma a maimakon a dinga cewa Habasha xin sai ake cewa Hausa. (Adamu, M.T. 1997:19).

 

Haka kuma a wata faxar an ce da can larabawa da suka zo harkar cinikayya arewa zuwa kurmi, lokacin da suka zo suka ga kalmomi da xabi’u irin nasu, sai suka ce waxannan mutane sun so su yi kama da mu, amma sun xan karkace. To shi ne idan zasu zo sai su ce: za mu” Hawasa”, wato zasu garin karkatattu. (T/Wazirchi, 2009:14).

 

Masu ra’ayin Harshe suna ganin cewa kalmar Hausa a wurin su bahaushe ma’anar ta “harshe”, domin idan ka yi magana da wani harshe daban, bahaushe yakan ce ya ji ana wata Hausa, wato anan Hausa sunan harshe ne bana qabila ba, kuma al’umomin da suka taru suke magana da wannan harshe sune Hausawa. (T/Wazirchi, 2009: 16).

 

A taqaice dai, Kalmar Hausa tana nufin harshe, tana kuma nufin mutanen da suke Magana da Harshen na Hausa a matsayin harshen uwa, kamar yanda kuma take nufin qasar da su waxannan al’umma na hausa suke zaune. Saboda haka ne a ke kiran harshen da cewa “Harshen Hausa” a kuma ce “Bahaushen Mutum” sannan a cewa mazauninsu “Qasar Hausa”.

 

ASALIN HAUSAWA

Kamar yanda muka ambata a baya yayin gabatar da wannan nazari cewa masana suna ta faman yin iyakar qoqarinsu wajen ganin an tabbatar da haqiqanin asalin Hausawa da harshensu, an tottofa albarkacin baki dangane da hakan kamar dai yadda za a gani.

 

Alal misali wasu masana tarihi sun ambaci cewa, akwai mutane tun lokaci mai tsawo da ya shuxe a waxannan garuruwa na Qasar Hausa, kuma babu wanda zai bugi qirji ya ambaci daga inda suke, ko da yake dai wasu kuma sun ambaci cewa ana kyautata zaton asalin Hausawa barbarar yanyawa ne tsakanin mazauna qasar da baqi da suka yiwo qaura daga qasashen Asiya zuwa qasashen Afrika.

 

Dalilin wannan qaurar kuwa, ance wai juyin mulkin da ya faru ne a tsakanin Banu Abbas da Banu Umayyah a Bagadaza, shiya sanya wasu suka yiwo qaura, daga nan ne suka bazu cikin Afrika ta yamma, musamman ta fuskar kasuwanci. Sai dai kuma ance, yayin da suke yin waxannan qaurace-qauracen ne, kamanninsu da harshensu da al’adunsu suka canza saboda auratayya da canjin yanayin rayuwa. Har ila yau an qara da cewa, ana zaton mutanen sun fi daxewa a Daura da Kano, ba don komai ba kuwa sai dan sune aka gwada kuma aka ga akwai da xaxxen tarihinsu da yadda mutanen suka rayu a waxannan wurare. (Adamu, M.T. 1997:21 – 22).

 

 

Akwai masu ra’ayin lallai Hausawa tun Asali anan garuruwansu na qasar Hausa Allah ya yi su, bawai sun yo hijira ne daga wani wuri suka zo nan xin ba. malaman suna da hujjoji masu yawa a kan hakan, daga ciki suna kafa Hujja da maganar babban Malaminnan shekh Nasiru Kabara, yanda yake cewa jirgin kwale – kwalen Annabi Nuhu (As) ya yin da ruwan Xufana ya xauke ya tsayane a wani gari mai suna ‘yandoto, wanda yanzu garin yana cikin Jahar Zamfara ta nan qasar Hausa.

 

 

A wajen masu wannan ra’ayi wannan nahiya tun asali ana kiran ta da shi wannan suna ne da aka santa da shi wato “Hausa”.

 

 

Yawan qare-qare a wasu shiyyoyi na Qasar Hausa, da qarancinsu a wasu wuraren shi ne babban dalilin da za a jinginu da shi. A cewar masu wannan ra’ayin duk inda qare-qaren suka tattaru a xan qanqanen wuri, to a nan ka haifi harshen. In kuma kaga harshe ya yaxu bai xaya a qasa mai faxi, to ba a nan aka haife shi ba ya zone daga wata qasa. (T/Wazirchi, 2009:17 – 18). Farfesa Aliyu Muhammad Bunza na Jami’ar Xanfodiyo da ke sakkwato yana da irin wannan ra’ayi cewa “Hausa ba daga wani wuri ta zo ba Nahiyar Gobir nance mahaifar Hausa”. (T/Wazirchi, 2009): 18).

 

Sannan su ma mafi yawan mawaqan baka, musamman waxanda suka fito daga yankin sakkwato ta da wadda ta haxa da Zamfara da Kabi suna ambaton wannan nahiya “Hausa”.

 

 

Ga abin da Ibrahim Narambaxa ya ce a gindin waqar Sarkin Gobir na Isa Ahmadu Bawa.

Gogarman Tudu Jikan Sanda,

Maza su ji tsoron xan mai Hausa

Ga abin da ya kuma cewa:

Bana Amadu Hausa ka yi rinjaye,

            Ni na yi,

In an ce Isa,

Ba ka jin ance wani sarki,

Ni ko duk Hausa,

Ba ka jin waqa,

Bayan tau.

(Waqar Sarkin Gobir na Isa Amadu Bawa). (T/Wazirchi, 2009: 18).

 

Ga kuma abin da Narambaxa yake cewa dangane da nahiyar Zamfara wanda a wurinsa nan ce Qasar Hausa.

            Tun daga Kaduna har Gusau,

            Qarewar Hausa,

Duk wata shawara ta zamanin Turawa,

Amadu ba a yin ta sai ya sa hannunai,

Don ko qoqari garai da sanin hujjoji.

Shi ma Alhaji Musa Xanqwairo ya ce a waqar Sardaunan Sakkwato:

            Amadu ya zo Hausa,

            Za shi gidanai rannan,

            ‘yan doka; ‘yan sanda,

            Da Ministocin goye,

            Duka Jama’a, sun taru,

Suna yi ma bankwana,

Suna ta roqon Allah,

Wadda kaz zo da lafiya,

Allah kai ka lafiya,

Ka sauka zak kyawu,

Domin girman manzo.

Shi ma Sani Aliyu Xandawo yana cewa:

            Tsaya mu kammu mun ga canji,

            Da yawa Jahar Sakkwato,

            Don raya karkara,

            Lantarki da shi da hwanho,

            Kwalta akai Hausa duk,

            Kwamishinan ruwa har wani alqawar yai yi,

            In dai Shehu ag gwamna,

            To har inda babu kowa,

            Hwanho yana kai bana.

(Waqar Shehu Kangiwa) (T/Wuzirchi, 2009:18 – 19 – 20 – 21).

 

Shi kuwa Malam Aminu Kano da Alhaji Yusuf Maitama Sule Xanmasanin Kano, sun yi tsokaci dangane da asalin Kalmar “Hausa” a makon Hausa na 21(CNHN,1974), a Jami’ar Bayero, Kano da aka xauka a kaset na 515. Sun yi nuni da cewa asalin Hausawa daga Habasha ne. Kuma tun daga Kalmar Hausa za a fahimci hakan. A nasu ra’ayin ita kanta Kalmar Hausawa daga Habasha ta samu. Da tafiya ta yi tafiya, sai aka koma ana cewa Hausa. Wannan zai iya tabbatar da cewa lallai akwai nasaba tsakanin Hausawa da Habashawa.

 

Xanmasanin ya nuna cewa ai Habashawa ne kaxai asalin duk wata baqar fata, musamman Hausa, ballantana ma idan aka yi la’akari da al’adar da ke tsakanin kalmomin cikin harsunan guda biyu. Misali:

            Habashawa                                         Hausawa

            Damina                                               Damina

            Zug – zug                                             Zuga – Zugi

            Habsha                                                Hausa

Kano, A. da Sule, Y.M, suna ganin cewa idan an bibiyi kamanci na tufafi da addini da abinci tsakanin waxannan harsuna biyu za a ga ko ja babu tushen Hausawa, Habasha ne (T/Wazirchi, 2009: 15 – 16).

 

 

Shi kuma shugaban qasar Libiya Mu’amar Gaddafi yana cikin masu ra’ayin cewa: “Har yau akwai wata qabila mai suna “HESSA” a can tsakanin Tubruk da Baila a can qasar Libiya har yanzu suna yin Hausa, kuma sune asalin Hausawa (T/Wazirchi, 2009: 21).

 

Masu Nazarin harsuna a nasu binciken suna ganin ita Hausa tana cikin rukunin harsunan da a yanzu ake kiran su da iyalan Cadi, sakamakon yankin Afrika Allah ya azirta shi da nau’ikan Harsuna daban – daban, sai su masu nazari a kan wannan fanni na harsuna suka bi diddigin bin tushen harsunan na Afrika yanda suka rarraba su dangi-dangi misali: akwai harsuna Dangin KWA wanda ya qunshi Nupanci da Ibo da Gwari da Yarubanci da dai sauransu. Akwai dangin BANTU Wanda yake iyalansa suna tsakiyar Afrika saboda tushensu xaya wato Bantu.

 

Hausa kuwa tana cikin rukunin iyalan CADI kamar yadda muka ambata ‘yan‘uwanta kuwa a wannan rukuni sun haxa da Bolanci da Bacama da Angasa da Bade kanakuru da margi da Kare-kare da Mandara da Ngizim da Tera da Hausar kanta da dai sauransu. Ana kiransu da wannan suna saboda ganin kamanceceniya a tsakaninsu ta irin fuskokin da su masu nazarin harsuna suke amfani da su, wanda ya haxa da kirar Jimla da kamanceceniyar kalmomi da dai sauran su, sai aka fahimci lallai suna da alaqa da tushe guda. Duk da cewa shi wannan harshe nasu na asali yanzu babu shi kuma ma hatta sunansa yanzu ba za a iya tuna shi ba. Amman an fahimci su waxannan harsuna da ake ganin dangin shi ne yawancinsu sun zauna ne a gefen Kogin Cadi shekaru aru – aru da suka wuce. Saboda haka ne sai aka sa musu suna, Iyalan CADI wanda a cikinsu harda ita Hausa xin kamar yadda muka gani.

Misalin kaxan daga cikin kamanceceniyar kalmomi a tsakanin Harsuna iyalan Cadi kuwa sune:

  1. Harshe             Kalma             Harshe             Kalma

Hausa             Mutu               Hausa              Goma

Angas              Mut                 Bura                Kum

Mandara         Mtsa                Bolanci            Kumo

Bolanci            Motu               Ngizim             Guma

                                          Tera                 Gwan

 

iii.          Harshe                       Kalma              Harshe             Kalma

              Hausa                        Maiwa             Hausa              Mai

              Ngizim                       Marxu             Margi                Mal

              Bolanci                      Morxo             Bolanci              Mari

                                                                        Angas              Mwir

                                                                        Bacama           Mare

 

Haqiqa waxannan misalai suna nuna mana alaqa ta asali a tsakanin waxannan harsuna, sai dai daxewar tarihi ya sa ba kowa ne zai iya fahimtar hakan ba yawancin idan ba ma’abota nazarin shi wannan fanni ba.

 

Duk da cewa a ra’ayin wasu marubutan suna ganin shi wannan ra’ayin na masu nazarin harshe dangane da asalin Hausawa da harshensu a matsayin dangin iyalan CADI, suna ganin ba shi ne Asalin Hausawa xin ba, sai dai shixin wani zango ne a cikin tarihin rayuwar Hausawan da suka yi shi a wani zamani da ya shuxe.

 

Shahararren Malamin Hausa xin nan na Jami’ar Bayero, Muhamad Tahir Adamu (Baba Impossoble) ya bayyana a cikin littafinsa Asalin Hausawa da Harshensu shafi na 28 cewa: “ Ni a rayina, labarin zaman Hausawa a gavar kogin Cadi da kuma alaqar Hausa da harsunan gidan Cadi xin, wani zango ne kawai na tarihin Hausawa da harshensu. Amma akwai jan aiki tukuru wajen tabbatar da ainihin tarihin Hausawa da harshen Hausa”.

 

 

A ra’ayin shima marubucin littafin Gamssashen Asalin Hausawa da Harshensu, Comrade, Zahariyyu Abdurrahman Shu’aibu Kabo wanda ya yi cikin shekaru biyar (5) yana bincike da karance-karance da kuma ziyarce-ziyarce na gane wada ido da samo tsofaffin kayan tarihi a tsakanin wasu daga cikin qasashen Afrika. Marubucin kamar yanda ya kawo shi ma ya amince da cewa, ra’ayin Asalin Hausawa a matsayi iyalan Cadi wani zango ne a tarihin Hausawa xin, ba wai shi ne asalin su ba.

 

Sai dai shi a nasa ra’ayin, Hausawa da harshensu, kai da ma sauran qabilun baqaqen, duk kanninsu mazauna tsofaffin garuruwan farko na Afrika ne wato garuruwan gefen kogin Nil, waxanda suka haxa da Misra da garuruwan tsohuwar daular Habasha. Ya ce Hausawa al’ummace, kuma waxanda suka fito daga Misira, kuma vangaren Nubiya a wani lokaci, sai wasu Hausawan suka bar garin Nubiya suka koma Giza da Munif, wasu wurare ne a qasar Misira. (Kabo, 2014:82). Wannan a vangaren hijira kenan ta cikin gida.

 

Marubucin ya kasa tarihin Hausawa zuwa gida biyu: Daxaxxen Tarihi wanda yake shi ya ba da tarihin Hausawa kafin zuwan su Qasar Hausa, sai kuma kaso na biyu, shi ne tarihin zamani, shi kuma yake bada tarihin Hausawan bayan Jahadin Shehu Usman Xan Fodiyo. Wato bayan sun yo hijira izuwa nan qasar Hausa.

 

 

A daxaxxen tarihin ne ya kawo cewa, Mazauna yankin misira sukan shiga hulxar kasuwanci yankin Asiya musamman garuruwan Falasxinu, haka suma ‘yan Asiya sukan shigo, sukan yi hulxoxin rayuwa kamar yanda aka samu a tarihin cewa. Wata Sarauniya daga cikin sarakunan Misira na wancen lokaci, wato “Hatashbasut” suna abokan taka da sarkin “Banxa” wato xaya daga cikin garuruwan yankin Falasxinu. Harma ta tura masa da kyautar kwalekwale cike da makamai da kayan abinci azamanin mulkinta. Irin waxannan mutane da suke shiga dan hulxoxi yankin Falasxinu ne, bincikenmu yake ganin a cikinsu harda Hausawa tunda dai su ma mazauna yankin ne kuma har aka samu daga baya wani yanki na jikoki daga cikinsu ya yo hijira izuwa Lubiya daga nan suka shigo Niger har Allah (S.W.A) ya kawo su garin Daura ta nan yankin qasar Hausa a yau.

 

Daga cikin hujjujin da suka tabbatar mana sune:

Ga Hoton ‘yan aiken nata nan a ruwa da kwale-kwalen,da kuma sarkin (Banxa) yazo dan taren bakin da aka aiko. 

 

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